You Need Meters! You Need Dosimeter Badges! AndYou Need To Know & Understand Three Terms & The Corresponding Terms of Two of Them. . .To Measure Radiation Energy!
R (Roentgen), Rad, & Rem
Radiation that is coming to us from Nuclear Blasts will consist of Alpha rays, Beta Rays, Gamma rays, and X-rays. The latter, we do not need to be concerned about. It is the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma rays we are concerned with. We will also have that coming from the stars which will consist of the above and more; however, this is for a little later, after the coming Third World War.
Hence, you want a Survey Meter, or Geiger Counter so that you will know when to go to your fallout shelter when a Worsening Crisis explodes into incoming missiles carrying nuclear warheads. You may get no warning at all, but, if you are far enough away; some form of communication is still up; and, you have a Survey Meter, you will know fallout has begun when warned about the fallout cloud moving in your direction.
The Survey Meter will tell you if you are caught out in and how much contamination is around you; the Personal Dosimeter Badge worn on your chest will monitor how much radiation you have absorbed; and, once in your shelter and you get decontaminated by self or others, then the Survey Meter will inform you what part of your shelter is low enough in or free of gamma radiation. If it is too high in one area of the shelter; move to another, taking readings to find the lowest area with little or no gamma radiations.
Stay calm! You made it to the shelter and you have it stocked with necessities of life for you and your family. Keep this in mind: It is best to have 10 square feet of space per person. So, if you have four in your family then you must have at least 40 square feet of space. This means you will have to be in control.
If you have to take in a neighbor who mocked you for all your efforts and hard work, such as reading this series on Radiation, and you only have 40 square feet of space that you are using for shelter (duct taped windows, Positive Air Flow—See Safe Room), then you have now reduced the allowable 10 sq. ft. down to 8 sq. ft. per person. But, if this individual brings his family of three others so that now there are 8 people; then, there is only 5 sq. feet per person.
Ten square feet is a square about 3.162 feet x 3.162 feet. This allows for 4 people, your family, enough air in the room for just your family, you, and for, in terms of air for breathing, just about 5 hours.
This is why you want to review 'Safe Room' and plan for your positive air flow room. This would allow you more air time, provided you don't smoke and you don't burn anything to produce heat. Do the following for a Chemical/Biological Attack and for A Radiological Dispersal Device (Dirty Bomb) or a Nuclear Bomb Explosion(s):
Plastic Sheeting with a thickness of 4 to 6 mil or greater, such as 10 mil.
Precut to cover outside windows and screens 6 inches wider than the window/screens.
Caulk to seal hot and cold water pipe openings coming into the kitchen, bath, etc., to seal airflow from coming in.
Keep all items in a box in the same room to be used for a 'Dirty Bomb,' which is a Radiological Dispersal Device, RDD. If you have several rooms, do same per room!
Shut off all ventilation systems, such as air conditioning, central and space heaters; they use up oxygen, drawing in more air from cracks, holes, etc., that may not have gotten sealed. Use only the Positive Air Flow You Learned in How To Make A Safe Room!
Do not use anything that burns oxygen, such as a gas stove, wood fire, coal, fireplace, etc.
No Smoking Sign! If you have others come, inform them in advance, NO SMOKING!
Do not burn anything to produce heat as it uses up air and may produce, especially in an enclosed area, noxious, toxic gases. That includes smoking. If you smoke, get nicotine gum, etc.
Electric heat is permissible, as well as electric cooking, as it does not burn oxygen and therefore does not cause a Negative Air Flow. You want to keep a Positive Air Pressure (air flow out through the cracks, peep holes, ratholes, and other crevices you could not find to caulk, duct tape, etc.
Keep heating rates low using the electric heater, cooker, etc. This allows the room air to heat slowly and expand slowly, thereby pushing air out, creating a Positive Air Flow also.
When the Nukes fall, Dirty Bombs go off, or Chemical/Biological agents are dispersed, it may be in cold weather. Have coats, blankets, and warm clothing in that room. You do not have time to go out to other rooms possibly filling with contamination.
Have water, food including canned goods, masks of all types and oxygen bottles in your Safe Room. Most definitely have Rad Badges, Monitors, Survey Meters, and the credit–card–size dosimeters. Keep one on you at all times, one in the run vehicle, and one at the office.
On Contaminated Food & Water! From Fallout...On The Food & Fallout Particulate Matter In Water
Radiation Safety In Shelters: A Handbook For Finding And Providing The Best Protection in Shelters With The Use of Instruments for Detecting Nuclear Radiation
From FEMA, writes:
Contamination of Food and Water.Food and water that have been exposed to nuclear radiation but are not contaminated by fallout particles are not harmed and are fit for human consumption, unless spoiled in some other manner. If food containers, fruits, vegetables, and grains become contaminated by the presence of radioactive fallout particles, they need not be thrown away. If the particles can be removed by washing, scrubbing, brushing, or peeling, the food is safe for consumption.
This must be understood: There can be radioactive particulate matter on food, and this does not make the food radioactive; but, if the food grows on soil that is radioactive, or has received water that has dissolved radioactive isotopes in it; then, the food plants, grains, and vegetables may be radioactive, as is normally found in 'Naturally occurring radiation in potassium-rich food (such as bananas, when dried into banana chips, and salt substitutes) from Potassium 40.'— geigercounters.com
This may also be the case with Brazil Nuts! This latter is due to the high gamma–ray soil they are grown in. The nuts may contain 14,000 times the radioactivity of most fruits.
'A five–ounce pack of Brazil nuts brings an exposure of 0.0l mSv from the radium–radium–226 and potassium–40 in the soil where the trees are grown in Central and South America.' — A Field Guide To Radiation, Wayne Biddle.
However, this natural background radiation in the food supply does not generally constitute danger. It does when it is very high, as currently being found in certain fish and other foodstuffs due to the Fukushima Daiichi diaster in Japan!
In order to test for this type of contamination in foods, even the Potassium–40 in banana chips and salt substitutes, one needs a very sensitive meter with the ability to test for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation from nuclear testing or accidents, as from Chernobyl or Fukushima.
We recommend the geiger counter with a thin mica end window; using the Pancake GM tubes as found in the Inspector EXP from geigercounters.com, if one wants to test for food radioactivity. However, if one wants to just detect radioactive fallout that has fallen on their food, then the CDV–700 Geiger Counter is satisfactory, as shown in the immediate above video.
By having; the immediate above items, and the Survey Meter(s), this allows you for checking radioactive contamination and this will allow you to calm and remove Anxieties and Panic most will feel if they get sick; or that they are 'doomed.' These measures will also allow for more decontamination if additional measures are necessary.
It has been shown that tempers rise as the stress rises. Aches and other somatic complaints occur. Hallucinations can and have occurred in such crowding conditions. This is the same as the overcrowding that occurs in Refugee Camps, resulting in Refugee Diseases. Think of this if you allow others into your prepared shelter!
You will have to have your meter to evaluate higher radiation areas in your shelter, but still be safe for only several hours of exposure. This means you, the Radiological Monitor, will have to move your neighbor and his family to the higher areas of radiation for a few hours; then, they come back to the lower area, and you move your family to where they were and continue this rotation for the duration of the emergency. Radiation absorption can be kept down to safer levels in each individual by doing this type of action.
However, do you want to possibly put your own family at risk and endure the stress of all this when you and your family prepared and did without? This will be a judgement call on your part, and it demands you understand your Survey Meter and have Personal Dosimeter Badges for the ones who mocked you! And that you understand the readings on the Badges. And now-a-days, we can guarantee you they — not knowing anything about what is happening to them — will try to voice their feelings on 'How Things Should Be Done' and 'Why Meager Portions of Food & Water?'
For such stressful, exhausting conditions, you want to have on hand several different herbs that you can use singularly or in combination to keep one from going mad under these conditions. We have told you before, and from what we have heard, no one has gotten these. You want Calms Powder, a magnesium drink that is soothing to the nerves but can have a cathartic effect. Another herb is valerian root. Nature's Way makes a supplement called Valerian Nighttime. Also have on hand Kava Kava for relaxing the nerves, as well as Calms Forte. These will also help one sleep if taken at night by nervous individuals at that time.
The Bitch Will Have Arrived!
The Shame of It All
Dr. Allen Brodsky, points this out in Actions For Survival: Saving Lives In The Immediate Hours After Release of Radioactive or Other Toxic Agents. He says that many first responders, at least in 2011, when his book was published, are not receiving the training they should:
"Now, in present 'homeland security" courses for responders, after showing attendees the terrible effects of high exposures on the order of thousands of rad (millions of millirad), which have occurred in peacetime in the rare cases of radiation accidents, the trainers then spend most of the training time using so–called "pagers" that go up scale at only three times background or so (0.03 mR/hr). These are types of sensitive instruments that police or border security agents should be using only for detection of clandestine radioactive or nuclear material crossing our borders; responders should NOT be training to use them in recovery or life saving operations, and thus become frightened about insignificant radiation exposures."
In other words, for a serious radiological disaster, RDD or Nuclear Bomb explosion, they need meters and training in using and interpreting their readings to detect fallout dangers other than someone sneaking across the border with a radioactive element in their backpack. The pagers are too sensitive and do not read higher ranges as in fallout.
And another thing Brodsky points out is that the newer units from the International Commision On Radiation Units & Measurements will cause misreading of the radiation levels; and thus, will produce either terror of what looks like super high readings, but aren't; or, complacence in a low reading that is actually at a dangerously high level. For instance, a dose of 1 Sv =100 rems. If a responder reads a scale in the wrong units, it's easy to see how bad mistakes can occur. For example, during a reading in fallout, since 1 Sv = 100 rems, and the responder reads 25 Sv; then he may just think we have 25 rems. And actually this responder has 2,500 rems which is a lethal dose. From the Table 1–1, of Radiation Part I, you know that 600 R can cause death in two weeks or less! 2500 rems is 2500 R (where 1R = 0.88 Rem, rounding off to 1 Rem); therefore, at 2500 R, you are 4.166666 times dead!
What does this tell us, people? Learn whatever meter you have; learn the table; and know how to do the math conversions...or you are dead! Print out and know "How Radiation Is Measured" from Radiation Part II. However, if this is just too much for some, then be sure and get RADStickers and RADTriage credit card type. We recommend both! One sticks to your clothing, best on the shoulder if in a shelter as the head, shoulders, chest/back area get plenty of fallout, including the feet; the other can be carried in your wallet.
Before We Progress Any Further(From CDC)
Understand Exposure & Contamination!
Another Reason For Your Personal Meter
You Can Do ThisIn The Anteroom of Your ShelterFor Your Family
Remember! Take A Background Reading First!
One would begin to notice by now that there is not much difference in decontamination for Chemical/Biological Agents compared to RDD (Radiological Dispersal Device, Known as 'Dirty Bomb'); or, Nuclear Bomb Blast Radiation.
There are some differences in decontamination for persons that are not your immediate family which would be performed in your personal home shelter, as opposed to that person(s) you may have to decontaminate on the street if authorities ask for help at a street shelter and you have the know how.
When checking for personal contamination of persons or family, do a background check first. See Video Above Again. Any reading taken on a person that is greater than this background reading represents contamination.
Remove outer garments only! This can shed 90 % of the fallout material. If family, and in private, have them remove outer garments, then remove other garments, using glove (rubber/vinyl) protected hands, place discarded clothes in large garbage bag as they disrobe and have them shower with plenty of soap and water. Make sure they wash all the hairy places. Remove discarded clothing to an outer room.
When washing and showering is performed , instruct the people or family to use plenty of sudsy water and rinse well.
Then, recheck them with the GM (Geiger Muller) Survey Meter. If the skin of their arms or other area is still contaminated, use the following solution to remove the radiation emitters (particulates).
Schubert's Solution for Decontaminating Plutonium and Americium from Skin
Tartaric Acid (Cream of Tartar)
3.0 grams/ Liter
4.2 " "
Disodium EDTA or DTPA
8.0 " "
2.2 " "
All Reagents Were AdjustedTo pH = 7 With Concentrated NaOH
However, For Those Without A Working Chemistry Background, We Have Told Classes To Put All Powders Together In A Plastic Zip–Loc Bag; Keep Dry, Then, When The Time Comes Take A One Quart Measuring Cup; Empty One Bag of Powders Into Cup; Add Water To The One Quart Level. Sponge On & Rinse Off; or, Place Into Hand Held Sprayer and Spray On; Rinse Off
Make Up As Many Powder Bags As Members In Your Family
Use This Small Pocket Gram Scale...Easily Carried On You...
When washing off contamination, do not rub so vigorously such that the skin becomes reddened and/or broken, allowing contamination to enter; especially Chemical WarFare Agents!
Any broken skin or open wounds, irrigate thoroughly away from the open wound!
You will notice the range of danger of radioactivity is lower for an RDD (radiological dispersal device) than it is for fallout of a nuclear bomb blast. The chart that follows is different from Table 1–1: Levels of Sickness and Probable Conditions of Most People After Brief Whole–Body Exposure to Gamma Radiation. The RDD may consist of medical waste, alpha emitters, beta emitters, and gamma radiation. However, we suspect mostly alpha and beta as the gamma may cause serious illness in the deliverers before they could detonate the device. It is also different from the Table 1–1 because there is less energy in the explosion pushing out the various emitters. And, the radioactive dust from an RDD ('Dirty Bomb') falls in 10 minutes to the ground...not so in a nuclear bomb blast.
Therefore, You Need To Know The Following from Handbook For Responding To A Radiological Dispersal Device: 'Dirty Bomb' — First Responder's Guide — The First 12 Hours, and Do Accordingly:
Responders may find, in an extreme case, that a large source of radiation with radiation levels of 200,000 mR/hr (200 R/hr)or more is involved. Should you encounter radiation levels this high, immediately turn back and inform the Incident Commander. Entry into these areas should only be made at the direction of the Incident Commander in consultation with the Radiation Safety Officer for lifesaving activities, and only for very short time periods (minutes).
* Total Stay Time is calculated by dividing total allowed dose by exposure rate. For example, if total allowed dose for lifesaving is 50,000 mrem, Total Stay Time in a 200,000 mR/hr field is 15 minutes.
• If feasible, Incident Command and other administrative control functions, triage area, and contamination monitoring area should all be located outside the low radiation zone. Preferably these functions will be located upwind of the RDD site in an area of natural background radiation and no contamination. If not practical, seek areas with minimum radiation and contamination levels, preferably with contamination levels less than 1,000 cpm using a pancake GM, measured 1-2 inches from the ground surface, and radiation levels near background for contamination monitoring, and less than a few mR/hr for other activities.
• Discuss other alternatives with local/state radiation control program staff.
• If staff resources allow, use a pancake GM probe to define the 10,000 cpm boundary (1,000 cpm if feasible) outside of the low radiation zone, and restrict nonessential personnel from this area. It is desirable to control access to this area, and to survey personnel leaving this area for contamination before being released for other activities in order to minimize nuisance contamination spread.
Personal dosimetry is also recommended for workers in the low radiation area. — Ibid.
The Poor Man's Geiger Counter!
The Poor Man's Geiger Counter is an electroscope. We say this because, "An Ionization chamber is an instrument for detecting ionizing radiation by measuring the amount of charge liberated by the interaction of ionizing radiation with suitable gasses, liquids, or solids.
"While the gold leaf electroscope is the oldest form of ionization chamber, instruments of this type are still widely used as monitors of radiations by workers in the nuclear or radiomedical professions. However, for many purposes it is useful to measure the ionization pulse produced by a single ionizing particle." — Concise Encyclopedia of Physics, McGraw–Hill
The Electroscope is "an instrument for detecting the presence and sign of an electric charge. It is the simplest type of ionization chamber." The gold-leaf electroscope uses an extremely thin conducting foil which has low mass per unit area and is very flexible, Hence, it responds quickly and vigorously to small electrostatic forces, and this would include alpha and beta ionizing particles from incoming radiation from some Event happening in the Sun outward to Planet Earth; the Galactic Plane as we move through it as well as a 'Dirty Bomb' including a Nuclear detonation pushing out alpha, beta; or, ionizing radiation of gamma rays from our own star, the Sun including possibly the Galactic Plane we are moving towards its center at this moment. — Ibid
Poor Man's Geiger Counter!
Which Oil Do You Want?
What To Do:We Give This Again From A Slightly Different Perspective...The Dirty Bomb!You Must Learn This Now...!12>
You may have been exposed to low levels of radioactive particles. The particles may have settled on your hair, skin and clothing as dust. You are not in immediate danger from these small radioactive particles, however you do need to go home or to another designated area to decontaminate. Removal of outer clothing should reduce your contamination by up to 90%. In order to help protect your health and safety as well as others, please follow these directions.
Because radiation cannot be seen, smelled, felt, or tasted, people at the site of an incident will not immediately know if you have been exposed to radioactive materials. You can take the following steps to limit your contamination:
• Get out of the immediate area quickly. Go directly home, inside the nearest safe building, or to an area to which you are directed by law enforcement or health officials. Do not go to a hospital unless you have a medical condition that requires treatment.
• If radioactive material is on your clothes, removing them will reduce the external contamination and decrease the risk of internal contamination. Prompt removal of outer clothing will also reduce the length of time that you are exposed to radiation. When removing the clothing be careful of any clothing that has to be pulled over the head. Try to either cut the article off or prevent the outer layer from coming in contact with the nose and mouth area. You may also hold your breath while carefully pulling the article over the head. [Webmasters' Suggestion: Keep your eyes closed, also!]
Removal of clothes should be done in a garage or outside storage area if available, where the ground can be washed with a hose. If an outside area is not available, the removal of clothing should take place in a room where the floor can be easily cleaned, such as the tub or shower areas. ("Swiffers" are good for decontaminating smooth floor surfaces). Clothing should be rolled up with the contaminated side "in" to minimize cross contamination.
• If possible, place the clothing in a plastic bag (double bagging is best to reduce the chances of a rupture), and leave it in an out-of the-way area, such as the corner of a room or garage. Keep people away from it to reduce their exposure to radiation. You may be asked to bring this bag for follow-up readings or for disposal at a later time.
• Keep cuts and abrasions covered when handling contaminated items to avoid getting radioactive material in the wound.
• Shower and wash all of the exposed parts of your body and hair using lots of soap and lukewarm water to remove contamination. Simple washing will remove most of the radioactive particles. Do not use abrasive cleaners, or scrub too hard. Do not use hair conditioners. This process is called decontamination.
• If you are going to a monitoring location, it is best to change clothes and shower before being monitored.
The RADTriage is a US Military Grade Dosimeter that instantly detects radiation exposure in the event of a nuclear strike, dirty bomb, or a radiation leak from that nearby nuclear plant. This Wallet Sized card is "always on" and will never need to be calibrated and never needs batteries!
•Shelf Life up to 5 Years!
•Field Tested by the Dept of Homeland Security
•US Military Grade
•Fits in your Wallet
•Discreet and Affordable
•No Calibration or Batteries Needed!
•Made in the USA
RADTriage monitors 20 mSv and higher doses of Gamma/x-ray radiation in a radiological incident. The sensor instantly develops color upon exposure to radiation. Color development is permanent and cumulative. The longer the exposure the darker the color.
1 R = 1 Rad
1 Rad = 1 Rem
1 Gy = 100 Rads
1 Sv = 100 Rems
Rem (Roentgen Equivalent Man)
Rad (Radiation Absorbed Dose)
Have One On You At All Times Now! Also, In Your Run Vehicle. Your Run Bag. . .
For Emergency Purposes, It Is Best To Dispense With All of The Complexities Associated With Rads, and Assume That 1 R Results In About 1 Rad To The Body — Allen Brodsky, Actions For SurvivalThen, Recall Table 1–1, 0-50 Rads: No Symptoms. No Medical Care Required. Able To Work. Zero Probable Death Rate During Emergency.
Necessary Outdoor Activities That Can Be Performed As Radiation Intensity Begins Its Decay. You Need A Meter(s) & Know How To Read And Interpret Them.Use Chart Below To Help You Govern Your Activities:
From FEMA:Radiation Safety In Shelters
Keep The Following In Mind:
Government Standards For Radiation Exposure Are Different From State Government Standards . . .
Which Are Different From Industry & Workplace Standards
Choose A Standard & Stick With It That Applies To You.
They Say in one of their Handbook Publications, CRCPD Publication 06–6:
Because individual states may adopt different values, it is important that responders consult with their local/state radiation control staff and become familiar with the specific values recommended by their state.
In 'Radiation Safety Guides' from the monumental textbook by Herman Cember & Thomas E. Johnson, Introduction to Health Physics, they say the above this way:
Radiation safety standards and regulations undergo continuous review and changes. These changes occur mainly as a response to a public policy based on attitudes of the public and on the philosophy of preventive conversation, and also because of the increasing sensitivity of radiation–measuring instruments.
The continual restriction of acceptable dose limits implies that earlier limits were unsafe.
However, there has been no verifiable increase in radiogenic diseases among radiation workers whose radiation doses were within the limits recommended by scientific advisory committees . . . in 1934 and the limits established by governmental regulatory agencies after 1945.
What Does This Mean? It means that you can't trust any of the current standards in case of a Nuclear War or Incident, such as an RDD (Dirty Bomb) attack. Go with the earlier standards and learn the three main terms: R (Runt-'gen'/'kin'), Rad, & Rem, and the two corresponding terms: Sievert (Sv) and Gray (Gy):
Dr. Allen Brodsky, Physicist, points this out again and again in his latest book, Actions For Survival.
R (Roentgen), Rad, & Rem
Check Nasal Contamination Using a GM That Is Set To .5 mR/hr. A Nasal Swab or Nose Blow Can Determine If Contamination Is Present In The Form of Beta/Gamma Emitters, After The Person Has Been Decontaminated, & Therefore Has Probably Inhaled Fallout!
You Will Need A Scintillation Counter or Scintillator To Measure Alpha Radiation Fallout.
We Feel, For Our Needs, If Beta/Gamma Are Present, We Can Assume Alpha Radiation Is Present Too. But...If An RDD Is Used, That May Be What They Used...Only Alpha Emitters Releasing Disentigrations Per Minute; Therefore, We Plan To Treat Regardless; That Is, We AssumeIt is There, If We Are Under Two Blocks To The Explosion & The Wind Is In Our Direction And No Large Structures Are Blocking The Emissions.
We Will Consider Ourselves Relatively Safe, Still We Will Perform The Scanning & Diagnosis, If We Are In An Evacuation Zone Of About 500 Meters In Radius Centered From The Explosion Center.
500 Meters = 1650 Feet (3.28 ft = 1 Meter)
Therefore,500 x 3.28 feet = 1650 feetOr
Approximately 2.5 city Blocks.
If, After You Have Taken A Scan on The Person's Body Correctly; Then, Scan Slowly and approximately 1/2 inch From—Not Touching The Subject, The Chest Area.
A Gamma Reading of 0.1 mR/hr May Indicate That The Person Has Inhaled Cesium–137, Cs–137, A Radioactive Nuclide—A Radioactive Form of An Atomic Element.
With our meter, 0.5 mR/hr & CPM measuring up to 30,000, doing a Nasal Swab Or Blow, using a water moistened Q–Tip, gently placing the tip into the nostril, twirling it slowly and gently, and holding the breath! After removing the Q–Tip; then breathing again, we take a reading with the GM Survey Meter. Any count less than 30,000 CPM should not be cause for alarm nor concern about internal exposures! Then, clean the nostrils simply with water or a saline solution and the rest of the body with soap and water.
Take care not to inhalewhile swabbing the nasal passages so that internal contamination will not happen. If the Q–Tips are contaminated, as will be shown by CPM counts greater than 30,000, discard safely and carefully into a plastic bag — label with person's name, body part, and time; and place at some distance from persons so they will not receive measurable rates of exposure. Nevertheless, there is still no reason to panic! Be on the Thiols! Whole Eggs! Coconut Oil! Make Sure Your Cholesterol Is Up...At Least To 180 or More!
Notice:Subject Will Not Like Nasal Swabbing
Get The Person To A Medical Radiological Facility If They Are Up & Know What They Are Doing. They Have To Have Medicines Against Radionuclides.However, If There Is A Wide–Spread RDD Attack Being Followed by SLBMs, With Concordant EMP Attacks, Being Followed By 'The Giants,' You Already Know What To Do!Be On The Thiols & Other Modalities Given In Radiation Part I!
If you should get to a medical facility that is still up — don't count on it, and space there will be at a premium in that only the 'Elite' will have government mandates to allow them in — they will give you KI (potassium iodide), or NaI (sodium iodide) for blockage of radioactive iodine to the thyroid gland; but, the big medicine will probably be Prussian Blue, a dye, which is ferric ferrocyanide, to trap and facilitate the breakdown and excretion of the radioactive particulate matter, radiocesium and thallium. Prussian Blue is the most effective treatment for the radionuclide, cesium. It binds to the cesium and thus, the bound substance is not absorbed into the blood, and as the blood goes through colon tissues, it is released to the colon, whereby the bound cesium is excreted in the feces. The same occurs for thallium.
Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) is another medicine in the armentarium of medicine for treatment against internal contamination of radioactive particulate matter. This substance binds to metals. DTPA binds to particles of the radioactive elements plutonium, americium and curium. The radioactive particles pass out of the body in urine, thereby reducing the amount of radiation absorbed.
However, one should know that in order for this chelation with the calcium or zinc salts of DPTA to be effective, it must be administered within several hours of exposure. Also, it is not without risk; hence, the benefits of chelation for the contaminant removal must be weighed against chelation risk.
It should be known that with Prussian Blue, cyanide is released from it and methylated by the liver to aid in removing it from the body. The process is the same if one gets a Vitamin B–12 shot from their doctor, using cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B–12) and not using the safer methylcobalamin. Hence, keep this in mind: methylation is a key factor to keeping the body healthy; therefore, if you are to receive Prussian Blue, then take Tri–Methyl–Glycine (TMG) and/or SAMe (S–Adenosyl–Methionine). Do three TMG morning and night; two SAMe, same schedule with TMG. Get at your natural foods store.
Another way is to have canned beets stored on hand; they are loaded with trimethlyglycine. When the radiations come, eat a can throughout the day and before going for treatment!
The Government In The U. S. Does Not Want Its Citizens To Have
This Is What The U. S. Government Says, From Allen Brodsky, Actions For Survival: Saving Lives In The Immediate Hours After Release of Radioactive or Other Toxic Agents:
What does the government recommend as to the use of gas mask or protective hoods? Why doesn't DHS include information on gas masks and hoods as part of its recommendations?
The use of gas mask and hoods by the public during a chemical threat is not recommended due to legitimate safety concerns.
Improper use of masks and hoods as well as a false sense of security as to their effectiveness could pose a threat to public safety.
For example, it is difficult to obtain a proper seal with the mask if you have facial hair such as a beard or long sideburns.
Protective masks do not fit small children.
— DHS Website; February 2008
When You Read/Hear Such As The Above, T–H–I–N–K. . . Israel!
Keep The Following In Mind:
From Nuclear War Survival SkillsUpdated & Expanded 1987 Edition By Cresson H. Kearney
A survivor in a shelter that does not have a dependable meter to measure fallout radiation—or that has one but lacks someone who knows how to use it—will face a prolonged nightmare of uncertainties. Human beings cannot feel, smell, taste, hear, or see fallout radiation. [What they can see is fallout particulate matter if it is strong enough and still airborn; or, has pooled on vehicles, windswept curbs, etc...another reason you want a meter!—WebMasters]
A heavy attack would put most radio stations off the air, due to the effects of electromagnetic pulse, blast, fire, or fallout from explosions. Because fallout intensities often vary greatly over short distances, those stations still broadcasting would rarely be able to give reliable information concerning the constantly changing radiation dangers around a survivor's shelter.
Which parts of the shelter give the best protection? How large is the radiation dose being received by each person? When is it safe to leave the shelter for a few minutes? When can one leave for an hour's walk to get desperately needed water? As fallout continues, how long can one safely work each day outside the shelter? When can the shelter be left for good? Only an accurate, dependable fallout meter will enable survivors to answer these life–or–death questions.
....With a reliable dose rate meter you can quite quickly determine how great the radiation dangers are in different places, and then promptly act to reduce your exposure to these unseen, unfelt. For example, if you go outside an excellent fallout shelter and learn by reading your dose rate meter that you are being exposed to 30 R/hr, you know that if you stay there for one hour you will receive a dose of 30 R.
But if you go back inside your excellent shelter after 2 minutes, then while outside you will have received a dose of only 1 R.
From WebMasters: 30 R in one hour is 30 R in 60 minutes; therefore, 30 R x 2 minutes = 60 R divided by 60 minutes = 1 R.
When You Get Your Meter(s), You Want To Have A 'Check Source(s)' Such That You Can Practice With The Meters & Learn of Them, and How To Use Them.
Here From Geigercounters.com Are Some. Later, We Will Give A Source
Whereby You Can Get Uranium Ore, Pitchblend, etc., That Is Legal and The Real Thing! For Now, Just Know This:
What household items can emit radiation?
Smoke Detectors - Contain an Alpha and Beta ray producing radioactive isotope of the element Americium that senses smoke. This is sealed, though, and may not give you any reading.
Lantern Mantels - Some of the mantels in camping lanterns, especially those from earlier years, are made of the radioactive element Thorium. Be careful not to inhale the mantle ash!
Watches - Some old watches and clocks, even gyroscopes, have dials painted in radium to make them glow in the dark. Radium emits Alpha and Gamma rays. More recently, Tritium, a radioactive isotope of Hydrogen, has been used to paint the dials, but it is too weak to penetrate the watch lens.
Camera Lenses - It has been reported that certain old Leica camera lenses colored yellow owe their hue to the presence of the radioactive element, Thorium.
Jewelry - Certain gems are irradiated by the radioactive element Radium, X-rays, or other particles to produce a color change. This can make the gem itself radioactive which can last for years in some cases. Also, cloisonné, an enameled variety of jewelry, is glazed with Uranium oxide.
Rocks and Minerals - Minerals such as uraninite and its pitchblende variety, also carnotite and thorianite, contain the radioactive elements Uranium and/or Thorium.
Pottery - Some older pottery such as the Fiesta Ware brand often found in antique stores is glazed with Uranium oxide. When broken, the dust can emit Alpha particles of radiation.
Furniture - More recently, certain metal objects in the home are reported to be partly made of spent radioactive material.
PROTECTION AGAINST OTHERNUCLEAR
(Beside Radiation, etc...)
• Flash burns are caused by the intense rays of heat emitted from the fireball within the first minute following an explosion. This thermal radiation travels at the speed of light and starts to heat or burn exposed people and materials before the arrival of the blast wave. Thermal radiation is reduced-but not eliminated-if it passes through rain, dense clouds, or thick smoke. On a clear day, serious flash burns on a person's exposed skin can be caused by a 20-megaton explosion that is 25 miles away.
[Commentary By WebMasters: The Blast Wave Travels 1 mile in 10 seconds; therefore, at 25 miles away, it would reach you in 250 seconds...and this divided by 60 (60 seconds = 1 minute) equals 4.16666 minutes! Hence, if you are under a worsening crisis, and know your distance from a probable target, and if it is hit; turn away immediately when you see the flash – do not look or stare at it! Duck and go for cover in a ditch, covert, or basement shelter, if near the latter. Multiply that distance x 10; divide by 60 and get the time in minutes to stay down until the blast wave passes!]
A covering of clothing-preferably of white cloth that reflects light-can reduce or prevent flash burns on those who are in a large part of an area in which thermal radiation is a hazard. However, in areas close enough to ground zero for severe blast damage, the clothing of exposed people could be set on fire and their bodies badly burned.
• Fires ignited by thermal radiation and those resulting from blast and other causes especially would endanger people pinned down by fallout while in or near flammable buildings. Protective measures against the multiple dangers from fire, carbon monoxide, and toxic smokes are discussed in Chapter 7.
Kearny Continues By Saying In Chapter 7:
Fires and its consequences probably would be the third–ranking danger to unprepared Americans subjected to a massive nuclear attack. Direct blast effects would be first, covering a large fraction of densely populated areas and killing far more people. Considerably few fatalities seem likely to result from the second–ranking danger, fallout radiation.
The Facts About Fire Hazards
...Lack of oxygen is not a hazard to occupants of shelters in or near burning buildings or to those in shelters that are closed tightly to prevent the entry of smoke or fallout. Carbon monoxide, toxic smoke from fires, or high concentrations of carbon dioxide from shelter occupants' exhaled breaths would kill occupants before they suffered seriously from lack of oxygen.
Commentary By WebMasters: Get Carbon Monoxide Detectors Here!
Carbon Monoxide Detector
Fires Will Be Everywhere...Coming From The Heavens....From Man....From Inside The Earth...And Carbon Monoxide May Come From What Is Happening Deep Within The Bowels of The Earth & The Microscropic to Macroscopic Tunnels Entering Into The Caves, Bringing Toxic Gases With Them, Inside The Cave You Are Seeking Shelter In...Be Prepared For This...Have Carbon Monoxide Badges With You...Have Dosimeter Badges...Have Your Meter(s)...Have Your Protective Mask (Formerly Known As 'Gas Mask') Too...
• Flash blindness can be caused by the intense light from an explosion tens of miles away in clear weather. Although very disturbing, the blindness is not permanent; most victims recover within seconds to minutes. Among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors (people who had been in the open more than persons expecting a nuclear attack would be), there were a number of instances of temporary blindness that lasted as long as 2 or 3 hours, but only one case of permanent retinal injury was reported.
Flash blindness may be produced by scattered light; the victim of this temporary affliction usually has not looked directly at the fireball. Flash blindness would be more severe at night, when the pupils are larger. Retinal burns, a permanent injury, can result at great distances if the eye is focused on the fireball.
People inside any shelter with no openings through which light can shine directly would be protected from flash burns and eye damage. Persons
in the open with adequate warning of a nuclear explosion can protect themselves from both flash blindness and retinal burns by closing or shielding
their eyes. They should get behind anything casting a shadow–quickly.
SKIN BURNS FROM HEATED DUST
(THE POPCORNING EFFECT)
When exposed grains of sand and particles of earth are heated very rapidly by intense thermal radiation, they explode like popcorn and pop up into the air. While this dust is airborne, the continuing thermal radiation heats it to temperatures that may be as high as several thousand degrees Fahrenheit on a clear day in areas of severe blast. Then the shock wave and blast winds arrive and can carry the burning-hot air and dust into an open shelter. Animals inside open shelters have been singed and seriously burned in some of the nuclear air-burst tests in Nevada.
Thus Japanese working inside an open tunnel shelter at Nagasaki within about 100 yards of ground zero were burned on the portion of their skin that was exposed to the entering blast wind, even though they were protected by one or two turns in the tunnel.
[Commentary By WebMasters: Hence, if in a cave, go several or more turns to the back if the turns are there and/or get down behind a large outcrop in the cave if it has one; cover your head, face, and keep eyes closed until the blast wave with heat passes]
(None of these Japanese workers who survived the blast-wave effects had fatal burns or suffered serious radiation injuries, which they certainly would have
suffered had they been outside and subjected to the thermal pulse and the intense initial nuclear radiation from the fireball.)
Experiments conducted during several nuclear test explosions have established the amount of thermal radiation that must be delivered to exposed
earth to produce the popcorning effect." Large air bursts may result in exposed skin being burned by hot dust and heated air produced at overpressure ranges as low as 3 or 4 psi. However, calculations indicate
that the large surface bursts most likely to endanger Americans would not result in the occupants of small, open shelters being burned by these effects except at somewhat higher overpressures.
Protection is simple against the heated very hot air that may be blown into an open shelter by the blast. When expecting an attack, occupants of an open shelter should keep towels or other cloths in hand. When they see the bright light from an explosion, they should cover their heads and exposed skin.
And This Too...From Kearny:
A fast–rising over pressure of as little as 5 psi will break some people's eardrums. At overpressures of 15 to 20 psi, 50% of the people who are exposed will have their eardrums broken.
However, persons near a shelter wall may have their eardrums broken by somewhat less than half of these unreflected overpressures. (Any wall may reflect blast waves and greatly increase overpressures near it.) Broken eardrums are not serious in normal times, but after a nuclear attack this injury is likely to be far more dangerous to persons in crowded shelters without effective medical treatment.
Lung damage, that can result from overpressures are as low as 10 to 12 psi, would also be more serious under post–attack conditions.
Standard Atmospheric Pressure = 14.504 psi. Over Pressure is the pressure caused by a shock wave over and above normal atmospheric pressure. The shock wave may be caused by sonic boom or by explosion and the resulting overpressure receives particular attention when measuring the effects of nuclear weapons or thermobaric bombs.
Therefore, we suggest one carry at all times now; on their person, 'Foam Ear Plugs' or another type to protect the eardrums. See it Here:
Introduction To Health Physics, by Cember & Johnson, Gives Another Reason, Unknowingly, Why You Need A GM Survey Meter...A Gas Mask...Think...Cave...
For when You Have To Find A Safe Area From The Prophesied Comet...The Galactic Plane...
The susceptibility of the lung to radiation-induced carcinoma has been known for a long time. As early as the sixteenth century, it was noted that a large proportion of miners in the Schneeberg and Joachimsthal regions in the Carpathian Mountains died from a lung disease that was called Bergkrankheit (miner's disease).
About 100 years ago, it was realized that Bergkrankheit was lung cancer. However, it was not until 1924 that the radioactive gas radon was thought to be the etiologic agent responsible for the very high death rate from lung cancer. Although these mines were worked for other minerals, mainly cobalt, the ground was particularly rich in uranium and radium.
As a consequence of the high radium content of the soil, radon gas, the radioactive daughter of radium, is produced and diffuses out of the ground into the air of the mine shafts, thus leading to a high concentration of radon and radon daughters in the mine air.
[Commentary By WebMasters: The Same Thing Has Happened In Basements for Homes Sitting On Rock, Before This Was Known, & To Seal Them.]
Airborne radioactivity may be inhaled either as gaseous matter, soluble particles, or relatively insoluble particles. Inhaled gas is assumed to be uniformly distributed throughout the lung. The deposition of particles within the lung depends mainly on the particle size of the dust, while the retention in the lung depends mainly on the physical and chemical properties of the dust as well as the physiological status of the lung.
The radionuclide in the inhaled soluble particle may, after dissolving in the lung, be absorbed into the body fluids and translocated to a tissue or organ where it may be deposited. Depending on the chemical form of the inhaled radionuclide, the radionuclide from the dissolved particle may also bind to the protein in the lung.
Relatively insoluble particles that are deposited in the upper respiratory tract are rapidly cleared from the lung and swallowed. Those insoluble particles that are deposited in the deep respiratory tract remain there for relatively long periods of time and may subject the pulmonary tissue to a severe local radiation insult due to the very steep gradient of absorbed dose around a radioactive particle.
Those cells very close to the radioactive particles would be killed by the high radiation dose, while those cells further away would get a sublethal dose, but a dose large enough to initiate an oncogenic lesion. Numerous laboratory studies showed that this was not the case. Particulate radioactivity in the lungs was found to be no greater hazard than the same amount of radioactivity distributed throughout the lungs.
[Commentary By WebMasters:
Now, It Is Crystal Clear As To Why You Want A Meter! To Pre–evaluate a cave Before You Run There; or, Evaluate It When You Get There...Move On If More Than 30,000 CPM (Counts Per Minute) . . . And, This Is Coming From The Earth Itself...
There May Be Leaks Into The Cave Deep From Within The Earth Emitting Carbon Monoxide—Hence, Get The CO Detectors And Use Them There Too!
Cember & Johnson Also Point Out The Following About Respirators:
Wearing a respirator can offer protection against inhalation of the airborne activity. However, wearing a respirator decreases the worker's efficiency and increases the time necessary to complete a job by about 20–25%. Thus, the decision about whether or not to use respiratory protection depends on the actual levels of atmospheric activity and radiation.
And respirators & when to use them, per your meter readings, were covered in Radiation: Part I