What You Should Know!

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    Dr. "B" began, Gentlemen, we have to be apprised of what can and will occur in Home & Public Shelters!

    You are going to have to keep these things in your mindset when time comes for Shelter Living!

Nuclear Radiological Incident Annex!

Psychological and Physical Problems In Shelter Life

An adjusted austere ration supplementing the basic biscuits in the interest of more appetizing meals is shown in the following tables for breakfast, lunch, and dinner. These additional spreads and liquids add much to the palatability of the food.


Three menus for shelter feeding are currently envisioned. The most austere in the federal stocked ration consisting of survival biscuits and one quart of water per person daily.

Each survival biscuit, 2-1/2 x 2-1/2, contains 30 calories and is low in protein, high in carbohydrates. 2" x 2" biscuits contain 22 calories each. Twenty-four large biscuits daily will provide 720 calories.

This federal-stocked menu may be easily supplemented by adding spreads such as jam, honey, and peanut butter. Instant tea and coffee, evaporated milk, and sugar are added for the sake of morale. The daily caloric intake is thereby increased to 1290 calories. The following menu may be varied by using different flavored spreads throughout the fourteen day period. Each item has been analyzed to show its nutritive value.

Problems of Abnormal Behavior

Provision should be made also for the psychological well-being of the occupants. Along with the physiological needs of water, food, air and temperature, management should be aware of the urgency of such psychological needs as achievement, affection, freedom from fear, security, group membership, and independence. Plans should be made from the opening of the shelter to reduce fear and provide a feeling of security.

There will be at least two periods of the shelter experience that will be characterized by unusual behavior on the part of many of the occupants.

The first will be at the period of occupancy, particularly if a disaster has already occurred and fallout is a reality. The excitement, confusion, and fear during such a period would require unusual leadership to restore order and proceed with the routine of shelter living.

The second period will develop more gradually as the deprivations of both a physiological and psychological nature begin to impinge on the occupants. If space, heat, light sound, food, oxygen, and water are not provided for adequately and supplier or controls break down, problems of behavior will arise which all supervisors will have to face.

The Problem of Deprivation

The supervisor of water and food in a shelter situation requires an imaginative grasp cf the behavior of frustrated, frightened and restricted individuals. Few people have any real conception of what shelter living will entail. The many deprivations that must be imposed will cause physiological, physiological and social reactions that must be understood in order to avoid confusion and loss of control. These actions may result from confinement, reduced water and food supplies, foul air, high temperatures or humidity, loss of sleep, bad smells, unusual noises, crowding and uncertainty.

The major studies of human reaction to shelter conditions have been made with healthy male subjects, and physiological effects rather than emotional and social reactions have been noted. With women and children in a real disaster where no escape is possible, many emotional and social problems will arise, that the food manager and his staff must identify and deal with, when no doctors are available.

Physiological or sensory deprivations are the most serious and every effort should be made in planning shelter living to reduce them as much as possible. Where fresh air, adequate food, and sufficient water can be made available, life will be preserved and good morale may be developed. A shortage in any of these basic needs will start a chain of reactions that will be difficult to control.

Oxygen Deprivation

This may cause temporary or permanent damage to the individual as well as severe problems of administration. Sufficient oxygen must be assured through a satisfactory ventilation system. If by accident, the system should break down or overcrowding deplete the oxygen, violent, uncontrollable activity such as that of a drowning person ensues ultimately, and paralysis is apt to occur. Undoubtedly, the person is unaware of the onset of his situation, and may fail to realize the seriousness of his plight. Hence, supervisors must be on guard for any symptoms.


This may become an inescapable problem for many people in shelters if only basic rations are available. Semi-starvation is characterized by feelings of weakness, hunger pains, dizziness and blackouts upon standing up suddenly. The hunger drive becomes the dominant dynamic factor affecting the behavior of the person. There is constant preoccupation with thoughts of food. Ultimately the individual becomes unresponsive and uncooperative. Many emotional problems arise. Attempts are made to steal food and other signs of mor .l deterioration develop. The food manager is likely to have to deal with various degrees of hunger.


Man can live for weeks without food, but he can survive only a few days without water. Next to air, sufficient water should be given top priority in stocking supplies. Deprived of water for a long period of time, men report that sensations of thirst become maddening. Adequate water should be stored and protected against waste by the food service division. Serious behavior problems arise from a depletion of water in the human system.


Bad odors in the shelter contribute to the discomforts of the situation and may be a real cause of complaint and turmoil.

Fortunately, our olfactory senses become adapted to odors so that even foul odors become less objectionable, and very few people are known to have died from bad smell. Nevertheless, loss of appetite, nausea aggression may result from bad odors so that the food manager will struggle to reduce them as much as possible.


Sensory problems with light may result from over stimulation or lack of it. Too much light has been known to cause increased tension among confined people, and no light can create innumerable problems. Darkness will lower morale by reducing activities, reading, and training. Problems of illumination should be carefully planned and controlled.

Temperature and Humidity

It will be very difficult to control these factors in fallout shelters with uncertain sources of power and little access to 'resh air. Hot, humid air sometimes produces vomiting and with little, if any, water for sanitary purposes, it could result in a very messy as well as uncomfortable situation. Many of the internal temperature problems will arise in connection with attempts to provide hot foods so that the food manage., may have to face controversial decisions in this case.

Sounds or Noise

Here the problem may be excessive stimulation rather than deprivation, but judging from other confinement experiences, continuous or loud noise- or even continuous harmony may irritate some people and cause aggressive emotional responses. Every effort to mask or eliminate noises should be taken in the planning for shelter living. Noisy motors or fans may disturb some people. Control of unnecessary noise is a continuing problem for management.


The pattern of behavior by which we satisfy the need for sleep is partly the result of cultural factors. Our pattern is based on the regular alteration of sleep and darkness. Man may go many hours without sleep although some sleep is necessary to recover from fatigue.

Most people require from 6 - 9 hours of sleep daily, and when men have been allowed to sleep as much as they care to, the average was 7. 9 hours per day. With sleep deprivation, concentration is impaired, motor performance deteriorates, and the individual is easily disturbed emotionally. Lack of sleep is a common complaint of people who have spent time in shelters. Many factors are involved, but every effort should be made to make sleep possible. Where lack of space makes it necessary to resort to shifts, the problems are multiplied.

Appetite and Taste

Appetite may be stimulated by the sight, odor, and taste of food with or without hunger. It can be stimulated by appetizers or destroyed by smells. Seeing others eat stimulates eating. Habit plays an important part in the rhythms of eating when situations are favorable. Taste will of necessity be sacrificed to convenience and survival. Some people may refuse to eat under shelter conditions and may insist on release before the signal for opening the doors is given.


Crowding involves most of the skin and muscle sense but its real effect may be on the imagination. A feeling of claustrophobia is not uncommon in confined spaces. The sufferer has a feeling that the walls are closing in on him and he is mentally very disturbed. By the very nature of the shelter, limitations in space will create problems of heat, odors, humidity, and aggressive behavior. Some people will insist on release in spite of any dangers that may be outside.

To these deprivations, some of which may become tyrannical in nature, must be added the uncertainty of the future and the possible breakdown of outside protection. On the other hand, with wise management, shelter confinement could be nothing more than an unpleasant interruption of peoples' lives.

If at all possible under the circumstances, it is much wiser management to avoid deprivations that have to deal with reactions from them. Wherever medical service is available, all indications of abnormal reactions should be referred to this department.

Problems from Fears and Tensions

Anxiety, as well as the stresses or deprivations to be endured, is also productive of emotional disturbances. Fear of the unknown is a cause of emotional upset. In the early hours of shelter occupancy these symptoms nay be quite common and may react unfavorably on the normal procedures of distribution and the morale of the occupants. The well trained manager will expect such problems and think first of involvement of these people in some activity to quiet them down.

To most Americans the call to a disaster will be a novel and horrifying experience. The problem of leaving homes and pets and rushing to a community shelter without knowledge of the security of some member of the family will be a common and very disturbing experience.

Less serious causes of emotional upset will be not knowing what to expect of shelter living; fear of contagious disease because of the close contacts with people; fear of suffocation in such a small space; possible fear of radioactive contamination through contact with other people.

In the initial stages some of these people will create serious management problems that will be reflected in rejection of food and increased aggression. Headaches and sleeplessness will follow with many of the occupants which they may attribute to food or noise. Both studies of actual disasters and polar studies have shown that the best way to deal with these initial disturbances it to find useful employment for these people if possible. Where space permits, some sort of activity could be organized or provided.

Minor complaints about lack of privacy, no hot food, no reading facilities, etc. will come later and be an indication that the occupants are returning to normal and panic is over.

Given such developments as high temperature and high humidity, additional fears and discomfort will arise, particularly if methods of control are inadequate or absent. Even in submarines where careful attention is given by engineers to prevention of such problems, they occasionally occur and cause both discomfort and illness.

Some occupants will be sure to find the food unpalatable or at least monotonous and will refuse to eat. The problem will become a nuisance but it may become severe if they try to leave the shelter before the signal for opening the doors is given.

Many will suffer from constipation on the diet now provided, with its lack of liquid, fruit; and other normal items.

Complaining occupants need to be reminded frequently that all men can endure much more than they think they can if they have a will to do it, especially for the common good.

Post Shelter Adjustment

The period of shelter occupancy should be used by the food manager to prepare the occupants for the food and water hazards which they might face on leaving the shelter. Planning recovery from a real nuclear attack involves a very imaginative effort at planning and organization. Destruction could be widespread. Much of the food and water supply in the neighborhood could still be contaminated. The actual situation should be explored and reported on before people are allowed to return to their homes. If it is found that widespread destruction and contamination exist, the shelter organization should serve as a center for cooperative community decontamination activities. Shelters that have prepared during confinement for such an attack on disaster areas will be able to return to their homes earlier.

The people should be informed during their stay in the shelter that protection from fallout is practical and attainable when approached in an organized way. They should be made to realize that systematic planning and informed management will insure success if everyone will cooperate. The food manager should plan to use the confinement period as the time for teaching the occupants of the water and food hazard could confront them. If fallout has been widespread, it is possible that foods in the homes, in restaurants, in stores, and in the fields will be contaminated. It is even possible that communication and transportation will be destroyed and chances for getting new food may be very limited. Under such conditions, instruction in the processes of selecting and decontaminating food should be undertaken while the people await favorable reports from scouts who are monitoring the area.

The responsibility of the food department to continue to supply non-contaminated food through the facilities of the shelter longer than originally anticipated is a distinct possibility.

Supplementary foods stored in warehouses which have not been affected or are capable of decontamination may need to be brought to the shelter where they can be prepared and shared with those who have no such reserves.

If occupants are prepared in advance for such conditions, it will speed recovery and help to stabilize the community. Rescue and evacuation teams could be organized. A decontamination team could be established. Medical facilities could be planned for and law and order restored where needed. As soon as possible, clean-up jobs could be undertaken in some areas. Utilities could be re-established, communication restored so that reports could be received about missing relatives, the fate of the government and national defenses determined and the outlook for the future estimated.

Post-entry training for post-exit existence would consist essentially of conveying reliable information of the danger inherent from fal,. the environment and keeping the occupants aware of changing conditions particularly as they apply to food. While emphasis is should be on prevention of serious contact with radiation, attention should also be given to identifying danger signs, to protection against radiation by shielding, and the possibilities of decontamination when contact has been made.

Every responsible person should be expected to read prepared Civil Defense instructions on how to operate radiological equipment.

These instruments will provide information about the extent and rate of change in the radiological situation. As far as possible, individuals should develop self-sufficiency before leaving the guidance of shelter officials. They should know the necessity of removing debris, from around the house, and how to remove it safely. If in such a process, they become contaminated, they should know how to apply first aid.

Emergency care of the sick and injured should be learned before leaving the shelter. Where the disaster has been wide spread, shelter occupants might be the only source of aid.

The maintenance of law and order' may be urgent in some communities to prevent looting. The procurement of additional supplies of food or the rationing of present stores may all call for cooperation and sacrifices to restore the community to some degree of effectiveness.

Movement of people may need to be restricted courts to be restored where former institutions hay. been interfered with. There could be a sizeable burial problem.

Problems with Contaminated Food and Water

The habitability of an area after a confinement period of a given period of time will determine when occupants of the shelter may leave permanently.

This exit time, must of necessity, be flexible and subject to careful determination of radiation throughout the neighborhood. Some sections may continue to be unsafe for a much longer period than others and as long as there is danger from fallout, the occupants would be expected to continue to use the shelter at least for sleeping or eating. There will be no sure way to predict the best time to quit a shelter. This will be a judgment made by management who will be in contact with Civil Defense authorities.

This uncertain situation will create many problems for the food manager. It may be necessary to stretch his supplies farther than he had originally planned. On the other hand, foods stored in basements or warehouses may be available for distribution. As soon as it is safe for anyone to leave the shelter, information about stored foods should be sought and their relative availability determined. If ample safe food is found, and, occupants will need only to understand the need for caution in their use.

The food manager should learn as much as possible about radiation levels in surrounding areas before he uses outside food or permits occupants to use it. This means that a campaign of information about these dangers and possibilities of serious consequences must be carried out once the shelter is occupied and ready for such instruction. Close contact with outside reports and radiological personnel within the shelter should be maintained for dependable information. With the consent of the manager, short excursions might be undertaken after a few days of occupancy by reliable staff members and samples they may collect for analysis might serve as a guide to further exploration. If supplies of food and water permit, the food manager should operate conservatively in undertaking the use of exposed foods.

Until he is quite sure of the accuracy of his data, he should make no predictions of the termination of his responsibility. The food service should continue until all occupants are assured of a safe supply of food outside.

If communication has been maintained with local headquarters of Civil Defense, their instruction with respect to the fallout situation should be followed, but occupants should not be released into an infected area until they have been carefully instructed about possible dangers.

Decontamination Processes

Since one of the objectives of civil defense actions is to minimize the radiation exposure of people to as low a level as possible, the internal as well as the external radiation hazard should be considered. Investigations have indicated that a primary annihilator, ingestion of contaminated food and water is of little consequence. Radiation from ingested radioactive material produces gradual damage thus becoming a long-term post-attack recovery problem.

Decontamination is the process of removing radioactive material from a location where it is a hazard to one in which it can do little or no harm. It is one of the means which are available for reducing the radiation dose that would be received from fallout. Radiation measuring instruments should be used not only to determine the effectiveness of the decontamination but also to make sure that the contaminated material is disposed of safely.

Because of its particular nature, fallout will tend to collect on horizontal surfaces, e. g. , roofs, streets, tops of vehicles, on top of open foods, on the ground. The main effort should be directed to clearing such places in preliminary decontamination. If an adequate supply of water is available that would be the simplest way to achieve this. A detergent will make the water more effective.

Contaminated materials should not be burned. Ashes would carry the contamination wherever they are moved to. Radioactivity cannot be destroyed. It must have time to decompose.

If emergency food supplies are exhausted or become contaminated in the course of the attack, the food manager will need to be informed about the decontamination of such foods. If food stored in refrigerators or basements has been exhausted and canned foods are not available, he would have to resort to food in the fields. Fresh fruits or vegetables can be washed or peeled to remove the outer skins or leaves. Boiling or cooking the food has no effect in removing the fallout material. Potatoes, corn, or other field crops exposed to early fallout would be safe to eat aftercleaning. Grain that has been covered would be safe but should be washed

The meat of farm animals and poultry is probably freer from radiation than meat on the market unless refrigerated and protected. Chickens are relatively resistant to radiation, especially if they are raised under cover and fed packaged food. If available, eggs and poultry meat would be good food for the interim period of decontamination. Chickens should be provided with food and water for the period of the disaster as an important extra food reserve.

Every family, even though they expect to occupy a designated public shelter, might be well advised to put aside a two week supply of canned food and water that would be on hand when they emerge from confinement. If fallout has been general, it might be days before a safe supply of food from regular community sources would be available.

Stored food should be in cans, jars, or tightly sealed paper containers. Food should be selected that will last for months without refrigeration and can be eaten without cooking. As far as possible, the needs and preferences of family members should be taken into consideration.

Familiar foods would be more acceptable in a disaster situation. As far as possible, foods should be stocked that meet nutrient and caloric values. A convenient set of tables for food values in canned food is available from the National Canners Association - Canned Food Tables.

Cans and jars of appropriate size for family needs for one meal should be selected. This is especially true for foods that deteriorate rapidly after the can is opened. Food spoilage in a well-filled, well-insulated home freezer does not begin until several days after the power goes off. The time will be from 3 - 5 days depending upon the size of the freezer. Food should be used as needed and replaced to avoid spoilage before the disaster.

Water Supplies

Domestic water supplies from underground sources will usually remain free from contamination. Water supplies from surface sources may become contaminated if watersheds and open reservoirs are in areas of heavy fallout. It should be emphasized that mere boiling of water contaminated with fallout is of absolutely no value in removal of the radioactivity.

Most of the radioactive fallout would be removed by, regular water treatment which includes coagulation, sedimentation and filtration.

Chlorination has no value in removing fallout. Water may be distilled to make it safe for drinking purposes. The water contained in a hot water heater at home would serve as an emergency supply provided it can be removed without admitting contaminated water.

Radiation in itself does not affect water. It is only if the radioactive particles themselves get into it that the water becomes dangerous. The particles can be removed by a simple filtering process that is easily devised.

It should be kept in mind that in shelter planning and post shelter planning that water is more vital than food. Ample supplies for the confinement period and the cleaning up period should be safely stored where they will be secure from contamination, and destruction of the vessels containing it will not be likely.

The countermeasures for contaminated food and drinking water have been developed and evaluated. They include conventional food processing techniques and existing conventional water treatment procedures, plus suggested expedient measures. These involve no new principal or phenomena in addition to those already considered in the public health, sanitation and water supply field. The major portion of the fallout will be insoluble and removed along with the sand, silt and other surface contaminants.

In no case should food or water be wasted or thrown away. As a general rule, the best quality of water and the least contaminated food should be consumed first. However no one should be denied food or water if the only source available is contaminated. Infants and small children should be fed a milk substitute or some other current formula.

Post Shelter Psychological Problems

The psychological effect of emergence from a shelter may be more overwhelming than those noted at the time of entry. The failure to locate relatives and friends, the discovery of the complete destruction of homes, plants, churches, and familiar places, the feeling of guilt or frustration at not having helped save others; despair about the future and the feeling of helplessness in face of the hopeless outlook; all these can create situations in which only strong men could remain sane and rational. It is hoped that the situation is more favorable at the conclusion of the shelter period. It is to be hoped that normal life can be resumed with certain precautions and organization provided to offer maximum protection.

The preparation and training for rebuilding society may be the vital thing to satisfy the needs of the occupants for a new sense of purpose. Furthermore, training is the only way known to diminish fright.

Management should make it clear to the occupants of the shelter that they should remain in the shelter until the signal is given to leave.

Before permanently closing the shelter and dismissing the staff, the manager should have assurance that all occupants can return to their homes or that provision has been made for their removal elsewhere.

Radiation Sickness

If the disaster has been widespread, radiation sickness may be a common problem both in the shelter and during the period following confinement. It would be helpful if it could be identified early so that proper treatment could be provided, or fears removed.

Radiation sickness is not contagious,of course. Many of its symptoms, however may appear in anyone subjected to anxiety and great stress. Since many people in the community will experience these conditions, there might be a tendency for some people to panic and assume they have been contaminated with fallout unless they are familiar with these facts.

The severity of radiation sickness depends on the amount of radiation to which a person is exposed and on the length of the exposure time. The body can take a limited amount of radiation damage and repair itself without serious permanent injury. It is only when one gets too much, too fast, that radiation sickness , or possibly death may result.

It might be helpful to think of at least three different degrees of radiation sickness in terms of the symptoms to be identified.

Some nausea, lack of appetite and fatigue shortly after exposure would characterize a mild attack. The best treatment would be rest and the person would be expected to recover rapidly and resume normal activities. Unless the patient has been exposed to fallout, it should be noted that these symptoms are the result of emotions of strain of some sort. These facts would be comforting to the sufferer.

When the same symptoms are more severe and are accompanied by vomiting and even prostration, the patient may the suffering from a moderate attack. A few days rest may be all he needs but symptoms may recur for a few weeks.

Again, when the above symptoms are followed in a week or more with fever, sore mouth, and diarrhea or ulcerated and bleeding gums, and in the third week the patient's hair starts to fall out, he has had . severe attack. Recovery may take two months. When exposure has been overwhelming, death c mes in hours or days.

The following treatment has been suggested for all degrees of exposure. General rest, aspirin for headache, motion-sickness tablets for nausea, liquids as soon as possible for diarrhea and vomiting, but not until vomiting has stopped, then one teaspoon of table salt to one quart of cool water to be sipped slowly. For sore mouth this solution can be used for a mouthwash.

Where professional medical care is not available, because of emergency conditions, the first aid handbooks in the medical kit should be followed closely.

When man is confronted with challenges to his existence, he has proved himself to be a highly adaptive animal. Somehow he has survived the disasters of the past, and unless totally destroyed he will survive the next one.

And...Do Not Forget About The Following!

Using Your Dosimeter To Find The Dose Rate!

Alternate Method For Those Who have Trouble With Ratio And Proportion Problems:

First: Place your dosimeter outside in the radiation for some fraction of an hour. Five minutes is 1/12 of an hour. Ten minutes is 1/6 of an hour, etc.

Then, multiply the reading you get in that fraction of an hour, say, 10 Roentgens, by the denominator of that fraction of an hour. If you left your dosimeter outside for ten minutes (1/6 of an hour), multiply 10 Roentgens by 6. The radiation outside, or the dose rate, would be 60 Roentgens per hour.

5 minutes = 1/12 of an hour (multiply your reading in 5 minutes by 12)

10 minutes = 1/6 of an hour (multiply your reading in 10 minutes by 6)

15 minutes = 1/4 of an hour (multiply your reading in 15 minutes by 4)

20 minutes = 1/3 of an hour (multiply your reading in 20 minutes by 3)

30 minutes = 1/2 of an hour (multiply your reading in 30 minutes by 2)

You Must Stay Safe When Getting Your Dosimeter Reading!

CD V–742 Dosimeter!

This is what Dr. "B" said, concerning Protein!

    "Proteins have structure, and are described as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary.

  1. Primary Protein is a poly (many links) peptide—where two or more amino acids come together, forming what is called a Peptide Linkage, or bond, with the liberation of water, known as Dehydration Synthesis! The polypeptide is the specific linear sequence of amino acids that constitute the chain.

  2. A Secondary Structure is where all matter exists in a spacial relationship, and therefore has a three–dimensional expression. The term conformation refers to the three–dimensional arrangement of the atoms of a molecule, that is, to their spatial (that is, how they are organized in space) organization.

  3. Tertiary Structure is the next level above secondary structure, which describes the conformation of the entire protein.

    "Protein tends to fold upon itself; thus, known as Native. The unfolding or disorganization of a protein is termed Denaturation, and is brought about by a variety of agents; such as, detergents, organic solvents, heat, and compounds, such as urea and guanidine chloride, which interfere with the various interactions that stabilize a protein's tertiary structure.

    "Something else very important in this unfolding is Radiation! However, 90% of the body can heal itself, in that, the protein can refold into three dimensional arrangement. Since all enzymes consist of proteins, and, without this refolding, enzymatic activity goes down, and the organism dies!

    "Gentlemen, one thing that is very important in helping the body build and repair is the Special Mineral you have in your Paks, and the Vitamin, both of which I invented years ago for such a time now arriving!

    "Also, you are loaded down with certain antioxidants which help guard and protect against Radiation Damage! Keep on them, as they will soon disappear!"

    Dr. "B" then, performed this for us because he said, "All foods will disappear. Therefore, get and store powdered milk this way, as moisture is the main ingredient that all life forms need to survive and grow. Here, the milk is already dried, somewhat denatured, but, if you were to drink 100 % whole milk from a healthy cow's teet, your stomach acid and digestive enzymes would denature it somewhat.

    You can add to this by making a glass of skim milk rehydrated; then ingesting some free form amino acid capsules with it to further ensure growth and rebuilding during this awesome time now here!

This is what Dr. Alcamo, formerly of State University of New York says about protein:

Proteins are by far the most abundant organic components of microorganisms and other living things. They function as structural material as well as enzymes, a group of biological compounds that catalyze chemical reactions in living things. Destruction of the proteins in an organism, such as with heat or chemicals, usually spells death for the organism.

Proteins consist essentially of chains of nitrogen-containing compounds called amino acids. At the root of each amino acid is a carbon atom. Attached to this atom are an amino group (—NH2), an organic acid group (—COOH), and another side group. The side group determines the nature of the amino acid. There are approximately 20 different amino acids in proteins.

In protein formation, amino acids are joined together by covalent bonds as the amino groups are linked to the acid groups by a dehydration synthesis. The chain that results is known as a peptide, and the bond is therefore called a peptide bond. In some cases, the peptide is the total protein, but in other situations, one or more chemical groups are added to constitute the complete protein. How the amino acids are slotted into position in peptide synthesis is a complex process discussed in Chapter 5. It should be noted that the sequence of amino acids is of the utmost importance because a single amino acid improperly positioned may change the character of the protein.

The chain of amino acids in the protein represents the primary structure of the protein. Many simple proteins such as the human hormone oxytocin occur in this form. Numerous proteins have a secondary structure that forms when the amino acid chain twists itself into a corkscrewlike pattern. Hydrogen bonds between nearby amino acids and sulfur–to–sulfur (disulfide) linkages help maintain this structure. A secondary structure may also form when amino acid chains line up alongside one another, as in the animal hormone insulin.

In addition, many proteins have a tertiary structure. In this case, the protein is folded back on itself much like a telephone cord folded on a table. Hydrogen bonds maintain the protein in its tertiary structure. When subjected to heat or chemicals the bonds break easily and the protein reverts to its secondary structure. This process is referred to as denaturation. Since most enzymes are tertiary proteins, heat or chemicals may be used to denature them and thus interrupt the important chemical reactions they control. Death of the organism usually follows. Viruses may also be destroyed by denaturing the tertiary proteins found in the outer viral surfaces. The white of a boiled egg is denatured egg protein; cottage cheese is denatured milk protein.

See Video Below!

Making Your Powdered Milk Go Further!

Are You Truly Ready?


When Fallout Comes, Keep It Clean:

CD V-742 Dosimeter!

Comet Hitting Rotating Earth!

These Are In Our Future:

Nuclear War

Nuclear Blast

Nuclear War On A City!

Nuclear War With Russia!

... To Be Continued ...

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any copyrighted work in this message is distributed under fair use without profit or payment for non-profit research and educational purposes only. [Reference:Cornell Law School]

In An UpComing Issue:
To Be Announced!

Something You Need To Know For What's Coming

Kong Sez:

    ChemicalBiological.net uses Graphics, Videos, Audios, and other devices to communicate facts. As time nears to Total Chaos in America and the world, ChemBio Updates will be sent out several times a week, either in e-mail format or as a hot link to its WebSite, as information warrants.

    As you use your computer, overtime, it slows down!

    If your computer downloads slowly, you need to daily do the Following:

  • Defrag your machine.

  • Use a Cleaner, such as CCleaner (one can also use their Defragger) to Optimize your computer for better performance. Get them here: http://www.ccleaner.com/. It's Free!

  • If you find a download from email coming down very slowly; simply close your computer and reboot. Then restart the download.

  • Find out from your ISP how much file storage you have, you need at least 20 MB. Also, go there and clean up used files. The ISP does this for you every 30 or so days. If you receive large files, the ISP may bump them back because "no room at the inn."

You Must Defrag Your Computer Regularly
Clean The Registry and Optimize the Machine Regularly
It Will Run Very Erratic and Quite Slowly!

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